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Benjamin Disraeli, British Prime Minister: I am in Ioannina, the Capital of Albania


Charismatic Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) is remembered as one of the most vivid images of British politics in the nineteenth century. He has twice been prime minister during the reign of Queen Victoria. Robert Elsie, writes that he is also known as a famous author and read a lot of Victorian prose.

Calf age, Disraeli took a big tour in the Mediterranean and in the Middle East, ostensibly for health reasons. His trip lasted 17 months (from June 1830 to October 1831). He moved to Spain, Malta, Albania, Greece and the Middle East, and this has proved to be one of the most formative experiences of his early years and one of the most beautiful memories of his life as a whole. Scholar has published on its website a letter that his father wrote Disraeli from Preveza.

Corfu, Disraeli and his two traveling companions, went to Golden and Janine, then capital of southern Albania under Ottoman rule, which Lord Byron had visited in the days of Ali Pasha (1741-1822), the so-called lion Janina. Disraeli official pretext for the trip to the wilds of Albania was to bring a letter from the Grand Vizier, Frederick Adam, the British Governor of the Ionian islands. From Preveza, he wrote that “I will never forget the effect of the muezzin, with his rich voice, high and solemn calling us to worship God in the midst of all this human carnage.

He was particularly impressed with the Albanian costumes. Much of what Disraeli without experienced in southern Albania was used in the novel for Skanderbeg “Rise of Iskander’s”, which he wrote in Bath two years after Albanian tournament. His letter from Albania, recounts the magic of travel, parts of which are publishing below.

My dear Father!

I wrote Ralph from Malta, Corfu and you, and you let the letters that followed the October package. However, no doubt you have received my letters from other sources. I mentioned in the letter that I sent, it is possible to do a great Vizier visit neighborhoods in Ioannina, the capital of Albania.

Scriptures in this encyclopedia are included from 1844-1872. Historians time as Cyprien Robert Josef Müller, Hahn and Bopp, personally visited the Albanian sites taking information from first hand, they are also served with material from Italian and Turkish history of time. This lexicon clearly shows how Europe saw Albanians from the corner of her gaze. Our opinion is well informed on how other nations have taught us in history.

Since this time when it releases this book, Albanian nation is faced with many struggles, many challenges, many problems directly affecting life in motion Albanian population. 91,400 km ² area was inhabited by Albanians, in this encyclopedia describes very well the Albanian borders, mountains, rivers, lakes, cities, seas and the Gulf of Arta. Even for the number of inhabitants considered important place, as it was more than neighbours.

They write the faith which was connected with religious division, Albanians are presented as people who have a religious tolerance and understanding. Most northern Albania, Kosovo today as sanjak were clean and ethnically divided on ethnic lines and belonged to the Roman-Catholic. Precisely in this century had begun the conversion of the northern Albanian Muslim people. Central Albania was engaged to Greek Catholic, while Albania in the south was mainly inhabited by people of Muslim faith.

Otherwise south, however, Albanians and Greeks were often mixed the two peoples and languages ​​often heard as alternatives, they use each other’s language. In the seashore almost all Greek-speaking people besides their native language. Only at home, in the family, the Albanian language was still in use even though Ali Pasha ruled Tepelenë.
But they say that above all, Greece was populated by Albanians and they form the majority in the boot, Attica, and Argolis Megara . Hydra Spezza and Salamis Islands were inhabited by Albanians, also in southern and northern Eubon Andros is exclusively inhabited by shqiptarë.Si and received overwhelmingly inhabited by Albanians.

“Encyclopedia of 1874 Albania”
Albania ( Classifieds Skiperi, Turkish Arnaut), with a length of 450 km and width-
from 90 to 135 km. Coastal country that stretches along the Adriatic and Ionian seas, has an area of approximately 91,400 km ² and about 2,350,000 inhabitants, its boundaries which are given, are more or less in accordance with the documents of the time, Albania borders:

• the north with Mount Black, Bosnia and Serbia, Bulgaria • east with high, with Macedonia, Thessalia, Greece

• south and the Gulf of Arta

• Ionian Sea to the west and the Adriatic Sea.

Albania is a country full of mountains and rocks So from here has the name “Skiperi” (country rock). All the mountains are wild, steep, full of valleys and deep canyons. In the north on the border of Montenegro lies Mount Koman, northeast of the country are Sharr Mountains, south-west of Lake Ohrid stretching Tomori mountains, southeast are Gramozi mountains and mountains of coming here Meqovës node ( Zygos), then the upper mountains Aspropotamotal. south east of Pindos mountain range and the western ridge of mountains Tsumerka, of which extend to the Gulf of Arta. Many of the mountain ranges to the sea end in steep edges, eg Linguetta Cape, Cape Laghi, Cape Paul Rodoni.

Albania is rich in water. But only a few rivers have a length over 150 km, with the exception of the Drin River that flows into Lake Ohrid, all other rivers are coastal rivers. Are only navigable M., Vjosa, Ballymena and Buna, but only for a few miles.Lakes that have been mentioned in northwest Lake Skadar (Skutari), 550 km ². Ohrid lake in the center and south of the lake of Ioannina. Coast ports and possesses very few large breasts, for example: the Gulf of Arta, Vlora, Durres and Drin, and to the south coast is steep Linguetta Cape, the north is flat and shallow to gorge Plants.

At the northern half of the country, the Albanian population is ethnically almost pure, unadulterated with Slavic nations, Bosnians and Montenegrins, a fierce ethnic divisions. In contrast to the south, however, Albanians and Greeks are often mixed the two peoples and languages ​​often heard as alternatives, they use each other’s language .. In the seashore almost all men speak Greek in addition to their mother tongue. Only at home, in the family, the Albanian language is still in use.
latter applies to the remainder of the old language-Illyrian Thrako, where according to Bopp, this language is an independent branch of the Indo-European tribe, but the words mixed with Greek, Roman, German, Slavic and Turkish.Albanian language grammar is lacking, as the letters used to write Greek, Greek alphabet, provided material received in Lecce (Rome 1716), in “Comparative Tables” (Hall 1822), (Frankfurt Xylander 1835), Rossi (Rome, 1866 ), a dictionary BLANCHIN (ibid., 1635). BOPP comparisons by using the Albanian language (Berlin 1855).

belief is associated with religious division, since the time when Ali Pasha introduced and established religious tolerance, Islam and the Catholic Church in public, they have a tolerance and understanding religious. Most northern Albania is committed and far-Roman Catholic, Central Albania is committed to the Greek Catholic and Albania to the south is mainly inhabited by people of Muslim faith.

Albanian political division of land is currently owned by some Vilayets Shkodra (Albania North) and Janina (Southern Albania), Skopje (Northeastern Albania), Monastery (Central Albania). The most important cities are coastal cities, Durres and Vlora Preveza, other important cities are: Shkodra, Skopje, Alhissar, Kruja, Elbasan, Berat, and Arta, in the eastern mountainous regions Prizren, Peja, southeast Ohrid, Bitola and Janina.

The name Albanians and their capital Albanopolis is first mentioned by Ptolemy. With their word or name Alban, they appear later (in the 12th century.), As the best fighters and biggest, most courageous tribe as the Illyrians, as worthy heirs tribe of Illyrians. Often showed bravery in the war against the Greeks and the Eastern Empire to preserve its freedom and independence later. Turks invaded the country after the Albanians changed the name from Albano to Arnaut.
Albanians are divided into two main branches, Tosk Albanian south and Gheg in the central and northern parts of Albania. However they are defined not only in Albanian homes and do not meet all the country. They live in western Serbia, along with Turkish parts of Bulgaria, even as the Albanians living in Austria (in Dalmci in Zara and Pola) and southern Italy (Apulia, Calabria, Sicily) where Albanian settler. But, above all, Greece is overcrowded by them and they form the majority in the boot, Attica, and Argolis Megara. Hydra Spezza and Salamis Islands are inhabited by Albanians, also in southern and northern Eubon Andros is exclusively inhabited by Albanians.

In ancient times, Albania was a part of Epirus and its residents are considered wild and bellicose, warlike. But from the sea coast has penetrated Greek culture, as evidenced by numerous debris Antiquity. Under the reign of King Pyrrhus Albanian country has played a significant role in the story (a short time) until it was broken within themselves in many small communities that fell under Macedonian. About 200 BC, begins subjugation of the country by the Romans. Many cities began to set up in the sea coasts: Apollonia (now Polina), was the seat of the development or science. Durres (Dyrrachium) via trade had become great and rich. In mountainous areas, however, was preserved old language and customs. With the move to multiple populations and migration in Albania vanished Roman rule. Hitherto unprecedented atrocities century resulted in 7, 8 and 9 with the Illyrian lands from invading Slavic tribes. They occupied the land Illyrian killed people and burned Albanian everything. Large part of the Illyrian population assimilated into Slavic. From 870 Ohrid (Lychnidos old) was the capital of a Prince of Bulgaria. Only after the fall of this rule too wild Slavic (1018), Illyrian population that you have survived these storms, start back again in possession of their land and exercising their language.With the Byzantine Empire, Albanians were almost constantly at war, where people were very concerned, had robbery and murder everyday. Then followed long battles with the Turks. Already in 1380 the Christians, Albanians and Slavs together with Hungarians fought against the Turk. In the terrible battle of Kosovo (1389) against Islam, the military had lost its axis in this battle being suffered huge losses in men. After this battle many Albanian tribes migrated to the Albanian uninhabited areas, in the mountains and mountains of empty lands in Attica, Thessaly and leaving relic pjellëshme lands in the hands of the enemy. They founded the Albanian numerous colonial cities, of which later contributed and made ​​bold resistance to the Turkish Sultan and Sultan Murad Pajazidit. Albanians have time gradually filled with tents and Stan and their huts all mountains.

Albanian bright story of that time is closely associated with the name of Skanderbeg, who brave prince for 25 years defended their lands.

( Since 1443-1467), more unseen heroism and luck against all the power of Turkey (Superpower time) fought for years with no success full invader, while his father in law, Acatina Topia, covering south appears southern Albania. Even after the death of Skanderbeg, the Albanians fought for a time against the Ottomans, the protection of Shkodra is known and one of their last battles of the period.

With the peace agreement between the Venetians and the Turks in 1478, Albania became the province Turkish, but this place never abated. Since the mid 17th century, Islam began increasingly to penetrate in Albania until then Christian. Also Albanians were also sent to the Turkish military services in many wars they do. Albanians formed the core of the Turkish army, they were commandos and were good soldiers, that Turkey wanted necessarily in its ranks. Brave leaders of the Ottoman army were mostly Albanians. But even in countries working to administration of the empire, Albanians increasingly often pitch.

George Finlay: The fame of the Albanians, Greeks urged to adopt modern Albanian kilts as their national costume.
history of the Greek would be densely unknown is not given importance Albanian element, filling military society whose empire Ottoman is fully appreciated. A small sign, but wonderful high position that Albanians had won, showing the general adoption of their clothes. Although it was always felt a strong antipathy toward Muslims Albanians from the Ottoman Turks, by the end of the last century they began to perform an involuntary homage to the martial reputation of Albanian mercenaries. There was the time, not unusual in Greece and Macedonia, to see the most sublime Ottomans children, dressed in kilts, or Tosca bardhëtë line. Later, when Veli Pasha, the second son of Ali Ioannina, ruled Morena, even young Greeks array, dared to take this outfit, especially when traveling, because it provided them the opportunity to keep guns.
Gunsmiths Christians and Greeks employed as guards and police, even in More, also wore the kilt; but it was the fame of the Albanians – military reputation gunsmith then falling, and that the Suols climbing – which spurred the modern Greeks to adopt the Albanian kilts as their national costume. As a result of this admiration of Albanianism court of King Othon received his terms melo-dramatic, and filed a mimicry under a frilly dress trashy rich and excellent, which drew the attention of Childe Harold in galleries Tepelenë castle; but kilts of basmës hangs around the legs of the Greeks as a paper nightgown and white kilts Tosca, made ​​of a strong product native loom, falls like a nice refraction antique cloth.

Relations and the Muslim Albanians Christians were much friendlier than relations between Albanians and Turks. Lasso, unlike Greek, feels national duty stronger than that of religion. Hostile feelings with which he regarded the Ottomans originated in Turkish pashas tyranny and avarice of Turkish Voivode, kadijve and mullahs. Against the oppression of these foreigners, locals, whether Muslim or Christian, had worked for so many generations together. [Pages 47-48]
George Finlay’s
“History of the Greek Revolution” [History of the Greek revolution, Volume 1]
But what is it that the majority of non-Greek continuously detects from the same western state that makes Greece?
George Finlay, one of filohelenik most ardent historians who took part with gun in hand in the fight insurgent year 1821-31 Albanianism gives an overview of what was later called Greece: ‘Marathon, Platsea, Leuktra, Salamis, Mantinea, Ira and Olympia, now populated by Albanians and not Greeks. Even in the streets of Athens, who though for more than a quarter century of Royal Capital of Greek, Albanian language is still heard among children playing in the streets near the temple Tezeut ‘(History of the Greek Revolution: 1861). Other authors put the highlight color of the majority Albanian population in the largest cities of Greece at that time. About the 1855 Edmond writes: ‘Athens, twenty-five years ago, was the only Albanian village. Albanians constituted, and still constitute almost the whole population of Attica; and within the three categories of the capital, where Greek villages are barely understood ‘. Pukëvill Frenchman also agrees with the colors of the Albanian majority population of Attica. Even ‘Elefisi, about midway between Megarës and Athens … is a miserable village inhabited by Albanians’ – Henry A. Dearborn wrote in 1819. Short, relying on descriptions of G. Finlay and F. Martin Albanians living on all Attica and Meseninë, most of Beotisë, all Salamis Corinth Argolisin and other interior regions of relic (Peloponnese). John Hobhouse (1809), bashkohanik of Byron, talking about the size of land holdings alignment of Ali Pasha of Ioannina Patriarchy says that in the south included a piece of Thebes, all Negroponten (Eubenë), the region of LIVADIS, Attica, areas around the Gulf the Lepantos (Corinth) and recently Morena (Peloponnese), which belonged to one of his sons.

Sami Frashëri his encyclopedic shumëvëllimëshe ‘Kamus Al-alam’ where biographical elements surfacing famous Albanians, mentioned in the respective items the boys of Ali Pasha, Veli Pasha respectively Muhtar Pasha were in Athens mytesarrif tasks (Muhtari) and relic (Veli). This means that ten years before the sapling formed Kingdom of Greece, it was called Albania not only politically but especially from ethno-linguistic. In support of this conclusion comes a countless multitude of ethnographic documentation of the time, noting that the Albanian character spaces in question. Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer who traveled across Greece met in Attica, Beoti, and most of the Peloponnese is a large number of Albanians set, which sometimes do not even understand Greek. If someone calls this place the New Albania, writes the same author, gives her real name.

To these provinces of the Kingdom of Greece are connected with Hellenism extent Scottish highlands with the Kandahar Afghan territories and Kabul. ‘Although Fallmerayerit theory as a whole is excluded, even nowadays it is true that a large number, many of the islands and almost all Arçipelagut Attica in Athens are to Albanian’ writes A. Vasiliev, author of volumes for all Byzantine Empire. Precisely, this combative Albanian population (for which all speak with admiration of the Europeans of the time) will be the next vanguard of the uprising which will kurorizojë an independent Greece. ‘Kunduriotët – writes Misha Glenny – the most powerful family punter Hidres island, which led to a significant group during the war for independence, Albanian descent’. Ëoodhouse separates the leader of the resistance in the north of the Gulf of Corinth who was ‘Sulioti Boçari Marko, whose followers were mostly Albanians’.

Even Lord Byron when seeking some contemporary facts attested to the great Hellenic spirit was missing, was directed precisely to Suols Albanians. Even the perception of European asokohshëm, heleniku old civilization that iluminoi with Europe, seen to the then Albanian. David Roessel says: ‘When Disraeli (British Prime Minister – SM) did Greek Albanian hero Skanderbeg in his novel Iskanderit Capacity (1831), he does not try to rewrite history or to pay Albanian identity. He simply did not see the Greek and an Albanian as exclusionary terms with each other ‘. Therefore, it is notable honest confession and wrongful Dimous Nikos Greek professor in an interview to The New York Times: ‘We speak English and we called ourselves The Greeks constituted, but then Ëinkelmani, Gëtja, Victor Hugo, Delakroiksi us we said, ‘No, you’re Helena, descendants of Plato and Soktratit right,’ and that makes’ (23 June 2009). Lartëpërmendurve Besides, in the story of the Greek War of Independence, heroes, and soldiers were kapetanët Albanian. At best this conclusion about the fact that immediately after independence, in the time of King Bavarian Otoni I emblematic Albanian dress – kilt – was adopted as the official clothing of Greece, which is used by the Army National Guard Greek today. Therefore, the Greeks pride flags today with ‘Ellinikotita’ (Greek true) are only an indication of the falsehood of their claim.




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